Originea Speciilor - On the Origin of Species (Romanian Edition) (Romanian, Paperback) / Author: Charles Darwin / Translator: Andrew Ryan ; ; Natural history, country life & pets, Sport & Leisure, Books. Release date: November Copyright © Loot™ Online (Pty) Ltd. All rights reserved. Murray Darwins after this date occur in three forms, the standard, in cloth, those in .. Originea speciilor prin selecţie naturală sau păstrarea raselor favorizate în. Main · Videos; Originea speciilor darwin online dating. After thy divorce, i sanctify thy divergence high although i forbade round to a bar. Quoting although filing.
He conducted empirical research focusing on difficulties with his theory. He studied the developmental and anatomical differences between different breeds of many domestic animals, became actively involved in fancy pigeon breeding, and experimented with the help of his son Francis on ways that plant seeds and animals might disperse across oceans to colonise distant islands.
Byhis theory was much more sophisticated, with a mass of supporting evidence. Publication of Darwin's theory Time taken to publish[ edit ] In his autobiography, Darwin said he had "gained much by my delay in publishing from aboutwhen the theory was clearly conceived, to ; and I lost nothing by it". Reasons suggested have included fear of religious persecution or social disgrace if his views were revealed, and concern about upsetting his clergymen naturalist friends or his pious wife Emma.
Charles Darwin's illness caused repeated delays. His paper on Glen Roy had proved embarrassingly wrong, and he may have wanted to be sure he was correct. David Quammen has suggested all these factors may have contributed, and notes Darwin's large output of books and busy family life during that time. Darwin always finished one book before starting another.
While he was researching, he told many people about his interest in transmutation without causing outrage. He firmly intended to publish, but it was not until September that he could work on it full-time.
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His estimate that writing his "big book" would take five years proved optimistic. Darwin was torn between the desire to set out a full and convincing account and the pressure to quickly produce a short paper. He met Lyell, and in correspondence with Joseph Dalton Hooker affirmed that he did not want to expose his ideas to review by an editor as would have been required to publish in an academic journal.
He began a "sketch" account on 14 Mayand by July had decided to produce a full technical treatise on species as his "big book" on Natural Selection. His theory including the principle of divergence was complete by 5 September when he sent Asa Gray a brief but detailed abstract of his ideas.
It enclosed twenty pages describing an evolutionary mechanism, a response to Darwin's recent encouragement, with a request to send it on to Lyell if Darwin thought it worthwhile. The mechanism was similar to Darwin's own theory. While Darwin considered Wallace's idea to be identical to his concept of natural selection, historians have pointed out differences. Darwin described natural selection as being analogous to the artificial selection practised by animal breeders, and emphasised competition between individuals; Wallace drew no comparison to selective breedingand focused on ecological pressures that kept different varieties adapted to local conditions.
On 28 March Darwin wrote to Lyell asking about progress, and offering to give Murray assurances "that my Book is not more un-orthodox, than the subject makes inevitable.
He bowed to Murray's objection to "abstract" in the title, though he felt it excused the lack of references, but wanted to keep "natural selection" which was "constantly used in all works on Breeding", and hoped "to retain it with Explanation, somewhat as thus",— Through Natural Selection or the preservation of favoured races.
In total, 1, copies were printed but after deducting presentation and review copies, and five for Stationers' Hall copyright, around 1, copies were available for sale. The third edition came out inwith a number of sentences rewritten or added and an introductory appendix, An Historical Sketch of the Recent Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species,  while the fourth in had further revisions.
The fifth edition, published on 10 Februaryincorporated more changes and for the first time included the phrase " survival of the fittest ", which had been coined by the philosopher Herbert Spencer in his Principles of Biology Darwin had told Murray of working men in Lancashire clubbing together to buy the 5th edition at fifteen shillings and wanted it made more widely available; the price was halved to 7 s 6 d by printing in a smaller font. It includes a glossary compiled by W. Book sales increased from 60 to per month.
In a May letter, Darwin mentioned a print run of 2, copies, but it is not clear if this referred to the first printing only as there were four that year. He welcomed the distinguished elderly naturalist and geologist Heinrich Georg Bronnbut the German translation published in imposed Bronn's own ideas, adding controversial themes that Darwin had deliberately omitted.
Bronn translated "favoured races" as "perfected races", and added essays on issues including the origin of life, as well as a final chapter on religious implications partly inspired by Bronn's adherence to Naturphilosophie.
Darwin corresponded with Royer about a second edition published in and a third inbut he had difficulty getting her to remove her notes and was troubled by these editions. Byit had appeared in an additional 18 languages. The existence of two rhea species with overlapping ranges influenced Darwin. Page ii contains quotations by William Whewell and Francis Bacon on the theology of natural laws harmonising science and religion in accordance with Isaac Newton 's belief in a rational God who established a law-abiding cosmos.
These facts seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species—that mystery of mysteries, as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers. He mentions his years of work on his theory, and the arrival of Wallace at the same conclusion, which led him to "publish this Abstract" of his incomplete work.
He outlines his ideas, and sets out the essence of his theory: As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected.
From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form. Darwin discusses contemporary opinions on the origins of different breeds under cultivation to argue that many have been produced from common ancestors by selective breeding.
Ancon sheep with short legsand 2 ubiquitous small differences example: However, for Darwin the small changes were most important in evolution. In Chapter II, Darwin specifies that the distinction between species and varieties is arbitrary, with experts disagreeing and changing their decisions when new forms were found.
He concludes that "a well-marked variety may be justly called an incipient species" and that "species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties".
It does not and never did. The book-sellers were, in a purist sense, right; the new printing was from standing type of the first edition, although with a considerable number of resettings. Darwin himself considered that it was merely corrected, but the next printing, inwas called the third edition on the title page. The copy at Yale is in poor condition and that at the University of Southern California bad, but both are in the original cases which are identical with one of the variants of the cases of and neither has any inserted advertisements.
A third copy, in commerce in America, was brought to my notice in March This one was in excellent condition and had inserted advertisements dated Junein the third variant referred to above.
The case was precisely the same as those of the other two. Three thousand copies were printed, perhaps including the few, considered above, which have on the title page; this was the largest printing of any edition or issue in Darwin's lifetime. It can be recognized immediately by the date, by the words 'fifth thousand', and the correct spelling of 'Linnean' on the title page.
There are three quotations on the verso of the half-title leaf. The misprint 'speceies' is corrected and the whale-bear story diluted, an alteration which Darwin later regretted, although he never restored the full text. This story is not found again in any printing, except in the American editions ofuntil the end of copyright. It is to be found reprinted in full, however in James Lamont Seasons with the sea-horses,as part of an essay on the origin of marine mammals pp.
The cases are closely similar to those of the first edition, but three minor variants occur. These are entered here under No.
Murray's general list advertisements, dated Januaryare present in most, but not all, copies; in some of them each page of text is surrounded by a frame of a single rule, as in variant 1 of the first edition; in others this rule is absent. The price fell to 14s. Murray sold copies at his November sale 'but has not half the number to supply'; so Darwin started revising again. Darwin received six free copies; one, inscribed to an unknown recipient 'With the kind regards of the Author' in his own hand, was sold at Sotheby's in ; this is the only inscribed copy of any edition of the Origin, other than family copies, known to me.
The third edition appeared in April2, copies being printed. The case is the same as that of the two previous editions, but again differing in small details. It was extensively altered, and is of interest for the addition of a table of differences between it and the second edition, a table which occurs in each subsequent edition, and also for the addition of the historical sketch.
This sketch, which was written to satisfy complaints that Darwin had not sufficiently considered his predecessors in the general theory of evolution, had already appeared in a shorter form in the first German editionas well as in the fourth American printing where it is called a preface; both of these appeared in Asa Gray wrote to Darwin on Feb. There is also a postscript on page xii. This concerns a review of the earlier editions by Asa Gray which had appeared in the Atlantic Monthly inand as a pamphlet paid for by Darwin, in This edition has one leaf of advertisements which is part of the book 2A6.
The fourth edition of was of 1, copies. It was again extensively altered, and it is in this one that the date of the first edition, as given on the verso of the half title, is corrected from October 1st to November 24th.
Darwin's own copy, at Cambridge, is in a case of the same pattern as those of the first three editions, but all other copies, although the same in general, have origin and species in italic; the blind stamping on both boards is new and the whole volume is a little shorter. There are two minor variations of this case; the earlier has the inserted advertisements dated January and the later dated April The fifth edition of was of 2, copies and was again much revised.
It is in this one that Darwin used the expression ' survival of the fittest ', Herbert Spencer's term, for the first time; it appears first in the heading of Chapter IV. In the footnote on page xxii, the name D'Alton, which occurs twice, should read D'Alton both times, as it does in the fourth edition, but the second one has become Dalton. It remains thus until the thirty-ninth thousand ofbut in the forty-first ofwhich was reset, Francis Darwin altered the first to Dalton, so that there were then two mistakes.
The format of this edition changes to octavo in eights; the cases, of which there are four conspicuous variants, are entirely new, and the spine title is reduced to Origin of species. Inserted advertisements, dated Septemberare usually present. The sixth editionwhich is usually regarded as the last, appeared in February Murray's accounts show that 3, copies were printed, but this total presumably included both those with eleventh thousand on the title page and those with twelfth, the latter being notably less common.
It is again extensively revised and contains a new chapter, VII. The edition was aimed at a wider public and printed in smaller type, the volume shorter again and giving the general impression of a cheap edition, which at 7s. The title changes to The origin of species, and a glossarycompiled by W.
It is in this edition that the word ' evolution ' occurs for the first time.
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It had been used in the first edition of The descent of man in the previous year, but not before in this work. The word had however been used in its transformist sense by Lyell as early as Principles of geology, Vol. In this edition it occurs twice on page and three times on page The title page reads 'Sixth edition, with additions and corrections.
The last sentence of the third paragraph of Chapter XIV p.
In the glossary of scientific terms, the word 'indigenes' is misprinted 'indigeens'; this persists until In the Library Edition of that year the text reads 'indigeens', but there is an inserted erratum leaf Vol.
The one volume thirty-third thousand of has 'indigeens', but the thirty-fifth, of the same year, has 'indigens'; this latter form continues in all further Murray printings.
Darwin himself uses 'indigenes' several times in the fourth chapter of the first and all later editions. Both forms are found in editions in print today. Finally, in this edition, the opening words of the Historical Sketch read 'I will here a give a brief sketch. This continues unnoticed through seventeen printings from the same stereos; but it was corrected when the whole book was reset for the forty-first thousand of This edition was reprinted, from stereos, later in the same year as the thirteenth thousand, and, again as the thirteenth, in On the verso of the title leaf of that of there are advertisements for nine of Darwin's works, whereas the reprint has ten.
The addition is the Expression of the emotions in its tenth thousand of As the first edition of the Expression of the emotions came out in Novemberthe first issue of the thirteenth thousand must have been in press before this time, or else the new book would have been added. The issue has no inserted advertisements, but copies of may have them dated April The printing of is the final text as Darwin left it. Peckham drew attention to the little known fact that there are small differences between the text of and that of He knew that the printings of and were from unaltered stereos ofbut was unable to see a copy of and had therefore to leave it uncertain whether these differences occur for the first time in that printing or in that of which he used for collation.
The issue was of 1, copies only.
Originea Speciilor - On the Origin of Species (Romanian Edition) (Romanian, Paperback)
This number is as small as any, being equalled only by that of the first edition; and, whilst the latter has been carefully conserved in libraries, no attention seems to have been paid to this one. It does not seem to have been previously recognized as the first printing of the final text, and is remarkably hard to come by. It was, incidentally, this edition which Samuel Butler had beside him when writing Evolution old and new in This printing is the eighteenth thousand, but, as it is important to know what was the first issue of the final text, it should be noticed that advertisements for The origin of species in other works by Darwin around mention the existence of both sixteenth and seventeenth thousands as well as this one.
These may be summarized as follows: We know that the eighteenth was in print inyet the sixteenth is advertised three times in the following year. It is more likely that the compositor was making up from bad copy. The title page of this issue bears 'Sixth edition, with additions and corrections to There are no additions to the text and the pagination, from stereos, is unchanged.
There are however corrections, slight but undoubtedly those of Darwin himself. The two most obvious of these are the change from Cape de Verde Islands to Cape Verde Islands, and the change from climax to acme. The index is not altered so that Cape de Verde is retained there in this edition and later issues and editions, including the two volume Library Edition, which was entirely reset.
The reason for the change of the name of these islands is not known, and Cape de Verde is retained long afterwards in issues of the Journal of researches printed from stereos. However Darwin had no copyright in his Journal and only Cape Verde is found in Vegetable mould and worms which was first published in There is also one small change in sense in Chapter XIV. The details of these changes can be found in Peckham. Inand subsequently, the same stereos were used for the very many issues which appeared, in a variety of bindings.
The first one to appear in a standard binding was the twenty-fourth thousand of All these issues, right up to the last incontinue to include the summary of differences and the historical sketch. An entirely new setting in larger type, was made for the Library Edition of in two volumes and, after two reissues in that form, the same stereos, repaginated, were used for the standard edition of the Edwardian period. This Library Edition is uniform with a similar edition of The descent of man, and the same cloth was used for Life and letters.
The cheap edition was entirely reset for the forty-first thousand of The paper covered issues, which have been referred to above, have the title embossed on the front cover, and were produced for the remarkable price of one shilling, whilst the same printing in cheap cloth cost 2s. Both of these, the latter particularly, are hard to find. There are two issues by another publisher in the copyright period.
In the first issue, the title page and text are those of the forty-fifth thousand ofwith a list of Sir John's choices tipped in before the half-title leaf. Seven hundred and fifty sets of the sheets were bought from Murray and issued in this form by Routledge and Kegan Paul in The second issue consists of Murray's fifty-sixth thousand, ofand there is no printed indication that this is a part of Sir John's series.
The green cloth binding is however uniform with the rest of the series. The first edition came out of copyright in Novemberand Ward Lock printed it in the same year in the Minerva Library new series. The statement by Darlington, in Watt's reprint ofthat his is the only reprinting of the first edition is not true. Most of the other early reprints are based on the fifth thousand, but that of Collins in is based on the third edition.
Modern reprints usually state that they are based on the sixth edition ofbut they are actually based on that of There have been about reprints in English in this century, many of them in standard library series such as Everyman and the World's Classics.
Some are important because they are introduced by leading scholars of evolution and show the changing attitudes towards Darwinism over the years; one, the Everyman ofhas even had its introduction reprinted by the Evolution Protest Movement. Almost all of them are bread and butter reprints in small type, but at a reasonable price.
However there is one spacious edition, that for the Limited Editions Club of New York in ; this was designed and printed by the scholar-printer George Dunstan, at the Griffin Press, Adelaide. There are the usual abridged versions and extracts for schools, and even a coupon edition from Odhams Press. There have been two facsimiles of the first edition; the earlier, inomits the original index and substitutes its own; the later, inis twenty millimetres taller than the original.
In a concordance was published: Weinshank and Timothy T. In JanuaryAsa Gray was arranging for an American issue of the first edition to be published in Boston, but two New York houses, Appleton and Harpers, were also considering it. The former got their edition out in the middle of January and Harpers withdrew.