The Holiday Calendar () - IMDb
An electronic book is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading Ballatore, Andrea; Natale, Simone (). |access-date= requires |url= (help); ^ Boyle, James ( ). You can access the latest version of the terms and conditions on this website; the date of the update is indicated at the end of the page. Copyright. The website is. Content European Professional Club Rugby, Statistical Data © European Professional Club Rugby. Privacy & Cookies. Delivered by Sotic Digital Sports.
Terminology[ edit ] A woman reading an e-book on an e-reader. E-books are also referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books". The devices that are designed specifically for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders". History[ edit ] The Readies [ edit ] Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a manifesto by Bob Brownwritten after watching his first " talkie " movie with sound.
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie".
The Christmas Chronicles
Later e-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Nevertheless, Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be 'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an entirely new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song.
Some notable candidates include the following: Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school. The final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. However, this work is sometimes omitted; perhaps because the digitized text was a means for studying written texts and developing linguistic concordances, rather than as a published edition in its own right.
All these systems also provided extensive hyperlinkinggraphics, and other capabilities. Van Dam is generally thought to have coined the term "electronic book",   and it was established enough to use in an article title by Thus in the Preface to Person and Object he writes "The book would not have been completed without the epoch-making File Retrieval and Editing System Hart [ edit ] Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S.
Hart as the inventor of the e-book. Seeking a worthy use of this resource, he created his first electronic document by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer in plain text.
Early implementations[ edit ] After Hart first adapted the Declaration of Independence into an electronic document inProject Gutenberg was launched to create electronic copies of more texts - especially books. Detailed specifications were completed in FY 82, and prototype development began with Texas Instruments that same year.
Four prototypes were produced and delivered for testing in Tests were completed in Harkins and Stephen H. InSony launched the Data Discmanan electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs. One of the electronic publications that could be played on the Data Discman was called The Library of the Future.
The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques, and other subjects. Comparison of e-book formats Reading an e-book on public transit As e-book formats emerged and proliferated,[ citation needed ] some garnered support from major software companies, such as Adobe with its PDF format that was introduced in Different e-reader devices followed different formats, most of them accepting books in only one or a few formats, thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more.
Due to the exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books. In the late s, a consortium formed to develop the Open eBook format as a way for authors and publishers to provide a single source-document which many book-reading software and hardware platforms could handle.
A Christmas Switch () - IMDb
Focused on portability, Open eBook as defined required subsets of XHTML and CSS ; a set of multimedia formats others could be used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formatsand an XML schema for a "manifest", to list the components of a given e-book, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on.
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