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Europe:: Italy Print. Page last updated on January 02, The World Factbook Country/Location Flag Modal ×. Europe:: Italy Print. Flag Description. Location of Italy (dark green). – in Europe – in the European Union (light green) – [Legend] . The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, and it is . Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period some. History; Communication and Media Studies; Computer Science and Information Systems Italy certainly has plenty of charms to tempt tourists and international universities in Italy include some of the world's oldest and most prestigious. first universities established, although the actual date of its founding is uncertain.

Those dialects now have considerable variety. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of regional Italian. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases: In contrast to the Gallo-Italic linguistic panorama of northern Italythe Italo-Dalmatian Neapolitan and its related dialects were largely unaffected by the Franco- Occitan influences introduced to Italy mainly by bards from France during the Middle Agesbut after the Norman conquest of southern ItalySicily became the first Italian land to adopt Occitan lyric moods and words in poetry.

Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are careful not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages. The economic might and relatively advanced development of Tuscany at the time Late Middle Ages gave its language weight, though Venetian remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life, and Ligurian or Genoese remained in use in maritime trade alongside the Mediterranean.

The increasing political and cultural relevance of Florence during the periods of the rise of the Banco MediciHumanismand the Renaissance made its dialect, or rather a refined version of it, a standard in the arts. Renaissance[ edit ] The Renaissance era, known as il Rinascimento in Italian, was seen as a time of "rebirth", which is the literal meaning of both renaissance from French and rinascimento Italian.

Pietro Bembo was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language from the Tuscan dialect, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage. During this time, long-existing beliefs stemming from the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church began to be understood from new a perspectives as humanists —individuals who placed emphasis on the human body and its full potential—began to shift focus from the church to human beings themselves. The ideals of the Renaissance were evident throughout the Protestant Reformationwhich took place simultaneously with the Renaissance.

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After Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church, he founded what was then understood to be a sect of Catholicismlater referred to as Lutheranism. Previously, the Bible was only written in Latinbut after the Bible was translated, it could be understood in many other languages, including Italian. The Italian language was able to spread even more with the help of Luther and the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg.

The printing press facilitated the spread of Italian because it was able to rapidly produce texts, such as the Bible, and cut the costs of books which allowed for more people to have access to the translated Bible and new pieces of literature. The rediscovery of Dante's De vulgari eloquentia and a renewed interest in linguistics in the 16th century, sparked a debate that raged throughout Italy concerning the criteria that should govern the establishment of a modern Italian literary and spoken language.

This discussion, known as questione della lingua i. Renaissance scholars divided into three main factions: The puristsheaded by Venetian Pietro Bembo who, in his Gli Asolaniclaimed the language might be based only on the great literary classics, such as Petrarch and some part of Boccaccio.

The purists thought the Divine Comedy was not dignified enough because it used elements from non-lyric registers of the language. The courtierslike Baldassare Castiglione and Gian Giorgio Trissinoinsisted that each local vernacular contribute to the new standard. Alessandro Manzoni sat the basis for the modern Italian language and helped creating linguistic unity throughout Italy.

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Eventually, Bembo's ideas prevailed, and the foundation of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence —the official legislative body of the Italian language led to publication of Agnolo Monosini 's Latin tome Floris italicae linguae libri novem in followed by the first Italian dictionary in The continual advancements in technology plays a crucial role in the diffusion of languages.

After the invention of the printing press in the fifteen century, the number of printing presses in Italy grew rapidly and by the year reached a total of 56, the biggest number of printing presses in all of Europe. The Colosseum in Rome, built c. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD. Romea settlement around a ford on the river Tiber conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for a period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.

The tradition handed down seven kings: In BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic.

In the wake of Julius Caesar 's rise and death in the first century B. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustusbegan a golden age of peace and prosperity. The Italian Peninsula was named Italia and, as the territory of the city of Rome, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces ". At its height under Trajanit covered 5 million square kilometres.

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The Western Empireunder the pressure of the barbarian invasionseventually dissolved in AD, when its last Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacerwhile the Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years. After the fall of the Western Roman EmpireItaly fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdomand, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths[52] followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian.

The invasion of another Germanic tribethe Lombardslate in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years. The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.

Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy Seelocal communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order. In a league of city-states, the Lombard Leaguedefeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnanothus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.

Flag of the Italian Navydisplaying the coat of arms of the most prominent maritime republics: VeniceGenoaPisa and Amalfi In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient.

world media international italian dating

They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracythe relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.

Venice and Genoa were Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned.

world media international italian dating

The republics were heavily involved in the Crusadesproviding support but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.