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As such, the search for evidence of molecular biosignatures by MOMA must be broad, able to detect the widest range of molecular structures, and must be interpreted in the context of both preservation potential and an expected background of abiotic chemistry.
The focus of ExoMars is on signs of ancient life. Under appropriate geological conditions, such as rapid sedimentary burial and limited oxidation potential, martian molecular biosignatures could be detectable through their diagenetic products, distinct from an abiotic e. Both modes of MOMA, separately and in concert, may contribute critical data toward their identification.
The Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry LDMS mode may provide initial indication of higher-molecular-weight hundreds of atomic mass units nonvolatile organics, consistent with such compounds, which can be structurally analyzed through subsequent tandem mass spectrometry as well as derivatization- or thermochemolysis-based Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry GCMS.
Moreover, when coupled with the mission's ability to analyze depth profiles, the molecular weight distribution of a wide variety of organics, from amino and carboxylic acids, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs and their alkylated homologs, to larger moieties such as porphyrin-based species and macromolecular carbon, covered by MOMA's broad-based detection approach, may help resolve the provenance of any detected organics.
One of the more important signatures in terrestrial biochemistry involves the use of only one enantiomer of amino acids as monomers for peptide synthesis, referred to as homochirality.
Similarly, a very significant D-excess would be a remarkable finding as this could indicate a biochemistry entirely independent from that of Earth. Molecular biosignatures caused by extant or very recent dormant or extinct biology on Mars would be more pronounced and thus more easily detectable than those caused by ancient biology.
However, the ExoMars rover mission as opposed to the Viking landers, Goetz et al. Absent a parallel direct search for metabolism or cells and organisms, it will be difficult to distinguish extant versus extinct potential molecular biosignatures in isolation without a full understanding of the taphonomic conditions of any particular structure or pattern, which is not well constrained for the martian near-subsurface.
Nevertheless, due to the predicted degradation rates for certain signatures, based on terrestrial biology and laboratory observations, detection of certain classes of complex organics, in the context of other measurements, could provide some evidence of potential extant or recent biology.
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Assuming martian life would be carbon-based and cellular as on Earth, one would expect common or analogous biomolecular building blocks such as chains of amino acids peptides and proteins or their analogs and oligomers of nucleobases RNA, DNA, or their analogs such as PNA—peptide nucleic acid [Nelson et al. Such larger, more fragile polymeric biomolecules are less likely to survive environmental processes and could indicate recent biosynthesis.
Similarly, phospholipids would be prevalent in the cell membranes of any viable community of bacteria or archaea, and the internal lipid structure could be used to distinguish among these e. Individual compound classes targeted for detection would thus include fatty acids, sterols, and hopanoids.
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Strong evidence of ee in amino acids within such a population may also be an indicator of current or recent biological activity due to the tendency for racemization over geologic time Bada and McDonald, ; Bada et al. Search for evidence of active processes geochemical, biologic, or exogenous: The astrobiological interpretation of the martian organic inventory, as it varies over spatial and temporal dimensions, requires a broad understanding of its carbon and other chemical processes and cycles.
The ExoMars rover, with MOMA, has the opportunity to achieve a new view of Mars, with its combination of depth sampling, likely late Noachian terrain, and MOMA's sensitivity to a variety of molecules over a range of volatilities and molecular weights. Abundance levels of such species significantly exceeding those expected from exogenous infall Steininger et al. Additionally, the surface of Mars should have accumulated significant quantities of larger more refractory organics based on the abundance levels found in interplanetary dust particles and carbonaceous meteorites.
MOMA's characterization of this fraction, primarily by LDMS, may determine not only the abundance of this potential background for trace biomarker detection but also the degree of processing of this matter by radiation Moores and Schuerger, ; Pavlov et al. Some refractory material can also be volatized by thermochemolysis or derivatization and thereby analyzed with GCMS.
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Understand the geologic context: MOMA is primarily focused on organic compounds. Important ExoMars objectives related to determining geological and geochemical context through inorganic composition are well handled by other highly capable instruments.
Nevertheless, MOMA does possess some capabilities for inorganic elemental and mineralogical analysis that complement those instruments. The presence or absence of certain elements including S, Ca, and some transition metals and of general mineral classes e. In the LDMS mode, diagnostic laser-desorbed metal ions, metal clusters, or metal oxide molecules with characteristic isotope patterns are produced during the standard analysis. While not part of the baseline investigation, MOMA does additionally have the capability to perform both evolved gas analysis EGAby monitoring the release of small molecules e.
The fine focus of the MOMA laser enables qualitative association of any organic compounds with the mineral matrix. Detect and characterize organic molecular species in solid samples with high ppb sensitivity.
Analyze patterns of, and interrelationships among, a variety of organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weights and volatilities. Analyze for the presence and degree of ee in detected chiral organics. Characterize the inorganic geochemical context of the organic analyses.
These objectives translate into a set of performance requirements Debus et al. MOMA shall be able to identify organics with chain-based or ring-based structures, which could indicate potential biosignatures, at concentrations as low as 10 ppmw.
MOMA shall be able to characterize molecular weight distribution patterns in organic molecules e. MOMA shall be able to detect compounds of low stability e.
MOMA shall investigate the biotic or abiotic origin of organic chiral molecules e. He claims to have fought poilcies three wars and is fond of Full House.
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